By F. Lieutier (auth.), François Lieutier, Keith R. Day, Andrea Battisti, Jean-Claude Grégoire, Hugh F. Evans (eds.)
For the 1st time, a synthesis at the study paintings performed in Europe on all Bark And wooden dull bugs In dwelling timber (BAWBILT) is gifted. As ultimate manufactured from a four-year study venture collecting jointly a hundred scientists from 24 international locations, the booklet is the fruit of a true collective synthesis within which all eu experts have participated. It studies and reviews on the entire ecu literature, whereas contemplating the organic (trees, bugs, linked organisms, and their relationships) and woodland administration features. even though, even though thinking about the eu woodland, it additionally compares the to be had details and interpretations to these relating related species in different continents. It ends with propositions of analysis priorities for Europe. The e-book is directed to all scientists and scholars all in favour of woodland entomology and ecology, in addition to to wooded area managers and all medical public attracted to wooded area biology.
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Extra resources for Bark and Wood Boring Insects in Living Trees in Europe, a Synthesis
In the Scolytinae, it is usually large and flat, and lies flush with the elytral surface. However, there are many exceptions to this in the Xyleborini. The elytra are extremely variable in structure and sculpture. In the Hylesininae, the basal margins of the elytra are procurved and slightly raised and bear a row of crenulations; in the Scolytinae, the basal margin is unarmed and usually forms a straight, transverse line across the body. Again there are exceptions to this in the Xyleborini, related to the presence of mycangia in or near the elytral bases.
F. ) Germany 2,800,433 Poland 6,780,000 Romania 90,000 1991-2000 120,000 1990-99 Spain 1,100,000 3,000 1990-99 Slovakia 1990-99 Switzerland 45,000 1992-2000 Total 11,135,433 1990-2000 Area (ha) Volume (m³) Number of trees Country Period Threatened Area (ha) Table 8. Damage caused byy Ips acuminatus 12,838,000 8,109 2,028 2,235 7,400 10,000 30 18,109 12,850,428 2,265 Switzerland Spain Slovakia Romania Area (ha) Volume (m³) Number of trees 45,000 4,500,000 1990-99 120,000 1990-99 45,000 1991-2000 Portugal 1 080 800 Poland 6,780,000 Hungary 217,000 Germany 2,800,433 Total Period Country Threatened Area (ha) Table 9.
In the Scolytini and Xyloctonini, the elytra are flat, and the abdomen ascends to meet them. In the majority of scolytids the elytra are declivous, and the abdomen correspondingly more or less flat. The majority of the ambrosia beetles have mycangia. These are cuticular tubes, pouches or pits of various sizes, associated with glandular cells and opening to the surface of the body. They are used to carry the spores of the symbiotic ambrosia fungi. They may be found in many parts of the body (head, thorax, and elytra), but are usually constant in position in particularr genera (Beaver 1989).