Read e-book online Atlas of Woody Plant Stems: Evolution, Structure, and PDF

By Fritz Hans Schweingruber

he „Atlas of Woody Plant Stems“ is a com- certainly, it used to be very unlikely to hide thoroughly the Tprehensively illustrated booklet with brief, in- huge, immense variability of vegetation varieties. we've got formative texts. We selected this structure simply because plant attempted, besides the fact that, to demonstrate the most rules and anatomy and morphology can simply be conveyed via good points. Many many years of assortment and prepa- targeted images. furthermore, a shiny presentation tion supplied the foundation for this booklet. should still allure a broader public, not just the s- cialist. we are hoping that the mix of anatomy Fritz Schweingruber wish to thank the Swiss and morphology will create curiosity and interest. Federal learn Institute WSL, that provided him Amateurs will benefit from the wide variety of images; hospitality after his retirement. The authors thank all readers should be stuck through specific chap- the scholars and associates that experience, for many years, ters; experts will delve into features and photograph- gathered and ready samples, and who helped graphs which can have by no means been awarded sooner than; with the English translations. because of John Kirby lecturers may well use the images for illustrations in who made the fnal English modifying. sessions with students.

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30). The heartwood has no longer any metabolism, because all of its cells are dead, but its function is to maintain the tree structure. 30 Stem cross-section with sapwood (light) and heartwood (dark brown). The heartwood is dead and it is already occupied by a wood decomposing fungus. Only the sapwood contains live cells and acts as water-conducting tissue. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra). 31 Live parenchymatous ray in the phloem. The cells with red nuclei are alive. Norway Spruce (Picea abies). 32 Live ray cells in the xylem.

18). 17, p. 18, p. 45). 13, p. 18). 12 Derivates of cambial initial cells. The xylem of conifers contains tracheids and parenchyma. The xylem of deciduous trees contains tracheids, fibers, vessels and parenchyma. The phloem of conifers and deciduous trees contains sieve elements, parenchyma and sclereids (after Wagenführ 1989). 13 Cross section of cambial cells with nuclei and few xylem cells. Cambium initial cells cannot be distinguished from xylem or phloem mother cells. Walnut (Juglans regia).

2 Monocotyledonous plant. Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera). 5). Maroc. 4 Dicotyledonous tree. Salmon Gum (Eucalyptus salmonophloia). 7). 30 The two main growth forms above reflect the presence (pyramidal growth of stems) and absence (cylindrical growth of palms) of secondary growth. 7). 3 Conifer. Norway Spruce (Picea abies). 6). Alps, Switzerland. 5 Stem cross section of the monocotyledonous Canarian Date Palm (Phoenix canariensis) from Gomera, Canary Islands. The irregular distribution of vascular bundles is characteristic for most monocotyledonous trees.

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