By Elmer H. Marth, James Steele
This completely revised and up-to-date reference/text offers accomplished insurance of the most recent advancements and medical advances in dairy microbiology. It emphasizes probiotics, fermented dairy items, sickness prevention, and public future health and regulatory keep watch over criteria for dairy foods.Additionally, utilized Dairy Microbiology, moment variation offers new chapters at the use, metabolism, and genetics of starter cultures, together with contemporary info on isolation and enumeration of lactic acid micro organism.
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Additional resources for Applied Dairy Microbiology
1993). Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a class of isomers of linoleic acid having conjugated double bonds. CLAs, of which milk fat is the richest natural source, have been reported to have anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, and immunomodulating activities (reviewed by Parodi, 1996). The most abundant CLA isomer, cis-9, trans-11-octadecandienoic acid, is produced as an intermediate compound in the hydrogenation of linoleic acid by the ruminal fibrolytic bacterium B. , 1966). This synthetic activity is in accord with the higher levels of milk CLAs observed in pastured cows whose diets are particularly rich in fiber (Dhiman et al.
Moreover, fiber in the diet helps the animal avoid milkfat depression, a syndrome resulting primarily from a relative deficiency in acetic acid (a precursor of short chain fatty acids in milk triglycerides) and a relative excess of propionate, which inhibits mobilization of body fat (a precursor of long chain fatty acids in milk triglycerides). b. Soluble Sugars and Oligomers Many ruminal carbohydrate-fermenting bacteria can utilize most of the different monosaccharides that comprise the various plant polysaccharides (Hungate, 1966): D-glucose, D-xylose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, and D- or L-rhamnose.
The starches are fermented rapidly to lactic acid, primarily by S. bovis, a normal rumen inhabitant. At near-neutral pH, S. bovis produces primarily formic and acetic acids and only small amounts of lactic acid, but during rapid growth carries out a homolactic fermentation producing the D-isomer. The explosive growth of S. , S. ruminantium, M. elsdenii, as well as some protozoa). As a result, lactic acid levels may increase from normal values of under 1 mM, to reach 20–300 mM. 5 or below. At high lactic acid concentrations, blood and body tissues 32 Weimer attempt to restore proper osmolality to the rumen, leading to a systemic dehydration that may be fatal.