By E. Aaltola
Exploring how animal pain is made significant inside of Western ramifications, the e-book investigates topics comparable to skepticism pertaining to non-human adventure, cultural roots of compassion, and modern methods to animal ethics. At its middle is the pivotal query: what's the ethical value of animal discomfort?
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Extra info for Animal Suffering: Philosophy and Culture
The price of such mutilation is high for individual animals. Piglets will show signs of pain for up to a week afterwards (including trembling, lethargy, vomiting, and leg shaking). In lambs, the stress hormone levels take a huge leap as a result of mutilation, and the animals show signs of significant pain by standing still or otherwise behaving abnormally for four hours or more, seemingly unaware of their surroundings. Dairy calves who are dehorned show signs of pain for six or more hours afterwards (Turner 2006).
This, again, helps to support the case for very moderate welfare legislations that do not have adequate regard for non-human suffering. Thus, welfare legislations tend to be strongly influenced by financial and utilitarian considerations. One example is the manner in which they reflect current opinions as to which animals can feel pain and which cannot. In the Western world, perhaps the most troubling example comes from the USA. The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 is a federal law that concerns the treatment of animals.
Sheer physical exhaustion is perhaps the most palpable problem amongst dairy cows. The intense level of production takes its toll: animals are constantly kept pregnant through artificial insemination in order to keep milk yields high, and this leads to eventual fatigue. Cows use so many of their own nutrients in producing milk that their organs begin to deteriorate and the fat content of their bodies finally sinks below healthy limits. Outwardly, these fatigued cows appear bony and have ‘dents’ on their sides – the signs of exhaustion are obvious.