By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Miklos Haraszti
Net filtering, censorship of web pages, and on-line surveillance are expanding in scale, scope, and class worldwide, in democratic international locations in addition to in authoritarian states. the 1st iteration of net controls consisted principally of establishing firewalls at key web gateways; China's recognized ''Great Firewall of China'' is likely one of the first nationwide web filtering platforms. at the present time the recent instruments for net controls which are rising transcend mere denial of knowledge. those new recommendations, which target to normalize (or even legalize) web keep watch over, comprise distinct viruses and the strategically timed deployment of disbursed denial-of-service (DDoS) assaults, surveillance at key issues of the Internet's infrastructure, take-down notices, stringent phrases of utilization regulations, and nationwide info shaping recommendations. entry managed experiences in this new normative terrain. The e-book, a undertaking from the OpenNet Initiative (ONI), a collaboration of the Citizen Lab on the college of Toronto's Munk Centre for overseas reports, Harvard's Berkman heart for net and Society, and the SecDev staff, deals six enormous chapters that examine web keep watch over in either Western and japanese Europe and a piece of shorter nearby studies and nation profiles drawn from fabric collected through the ONI all over the world via a mixture of technical interrogation and box learn tools. Chapter authors: Ronald Deibert, Colin Maclay, John Palfrey, Hal Roberts, Rafal Rohozinski, Nart Villeneuve, Ethan Zuckerman info Revolution and international Politics sequence
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Extra resources for Access controlled: the shaping of power, rights, and rule in cyberspace
Beyond Denial 13 4. Ronald J. , Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008). 5. Steven J. Murdoch and Ross Anderson, ‘‘Tools and Technology of Internet Filtering,’’ in Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering, ed. Ronald J. Deibert, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, and Jonathan Zittrain (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 57–72. 6. Ronald J. Deibert and Rafal Rohozinski, ‘‘Good for Liberty, Bad for Security? Global Civil Society and the Securitizaton of the Internet,’’ in Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering, ed.
The legal mechanisms used by the overt track vary from country to country, but most share the characteristic of establishing double jeopardy for RUNET users, making requirements such that compliance sets the grounds for prosecution, and noncompliance establishes a legal basis for sanction. The following are among the more common legal mechanisms being applied: Compelling Internet sites to register with authorities and to use noncompliance as grounds for taking down or filtering ‘‘illegal’’ content, and possibly revoking service providers’ licenses.
As of March 31, 2009, the top five countries with the highest number of Internet users, in order are China, United States, Japan, India, and Brazil. htm. 5. Between 2005 and 2007 Internet use in the Russian Federation jumped from 15% to over 28% of the population. 6. S. com. 7. 1 percent Internet penetration. htm. 8. More significant yet than its impressive growth has been the emergence of RUNET at the center of Russian popular culture. Internet memes and jokes once marginalized to the community of computer specialists and aficionados are now in the mainstream of popular culture.