New PDF release: A Handbook of Software and Systems Engineering: Empirical

By Albert Endres

This instruction manual provides the legislation that considerably impression software program engineering. This ebook starts with specifications definitions and concludes with upkeep and withdrawl. alongside the way in which, it identifies and discusses current legislation that considerably effect software program engineering. software program engineers who desire to reacquaint (or ecquaint) themselves with the elemental legislation of software program engineering and their applicability in an business environment.

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This guide provides the legislation that considerably influence software program engineering. This ebook starts off with requisites definitions and concludes with upkeep and withdrawl. alongside the best way, it identifies and discusses present legislation that considerably impression software program engineering. software program engineers who desire to reacquaint (or ecquaint) themselves with the elemental legislation of software program engineering and their applicability in an commercial environment.

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Extra info for A Handbook of Software and Systems Engineering: Empirical Observations, Laws and Theories

Example text

A report by Bernstein [Bern93] talks about a 40 percent reduction in effort because of it. The same developer gives a warning, however, about a well-known danger of prototyping: ‘Our customers loved it so much that we packaged it for sale’. This case is referred to as ‘trap number 1’ by the author. Not only customers may cause this to happen, but also the developer’s management or the sales force. Prototypes can also be dangerous in the sense that they may mislead developers. A typical example is performance: a prototype handling only the normal cases fitted nicely into the allocated storage, but the fully-fledged system didn’t.

A system may be able to assume millions of different states. The states of a system can be modeled with the aid of finite state machines. The problem is how to structure the states in a meaningful way. A process model expresses which signals cause which state transitions. e. made up of words, graphs, or mathematical notation). In the case of physical models, the emphasis is on the understandability by humans; in the case of mathematical models, the focus is on the possibility of deriving certain information using computers.

Of these properties, reliability is usually the most important and is often used as a synonym for quality. In the case of software products, reliability (and hence quality) is frequently expressed as number of errors or defects per thousand lines of code (defects/KLOC). The problem is that this is a developer-oriented measure. A user-oriented measure for reliability is the number of problems per user month. The relationship between these two measures is complicated and depends on the actual usage of a system.

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