By Eric H. Cline
In 1177 B.C., marauding teams recognized merely because the “Sea Peoples” invaded Egypt. The pharaoh’s military and army controlled to defeat them, however the victory so weakened Egypt that it quickly slid into decline, as did many of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized international of the Bronze Age got here to an abrupt and cataclysmic finish. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the process quite a few a long time. not more Minoans or Mycenaeans. not more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving economic system and cultures of the overdue moment millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, all of sudden ceased to exist, besides writing platforms, know-how, and enormous structure. however the Sea Peoples on my own couldn't have triggered such frequent breakdown. How did it happen?
In this significant new account of the explanations of this “First darkish Ages,” Eric Cline tells the gripping tale of the way the tip used to be caused by way of a number of interconnected disasters, starting from invasion and rebel to earthquakes, drought, and the slicing of overseas exchange routes. Bringing to existence the colourful multicultural international of those nice civilizations, he attracts a sweeping landscape of the empires and globalized peoples of the past due Bronze Age and indicates that it was once their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic cave in and ushered in a depressing age that lasted centuries.
A compelling mixture of narrative and the most recent scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new mild at the complicated ties that gave upward thrust to, and finally destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the past due Bronze Age—and that set the degree for the emergence of classical Greece.
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Additional info for 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed
Back to Egypt We must keep in mind that the goods mentioned above represent only a tiny portion of those that once crossed the Mediterranean Sea, for many of the goods traded during the Late Bronze Age were perishable and would be unlikely to leave much in the way of identifiable remains today. Grain, wine, spices, perfumes, wood, and textiles almost certainly have long since disappeared. Raw materials such as ivory, precious stones like lapis lazuli, agate, and carnelian, and metals such as gold, copper, and tin will also have been locally converted long ago into other objects such as weapons and jewelry.
1500 BC, it was once again a flourishing city, this time known as Peru-nefer, with palaces decorated with Minoan- style frescoes depicting bull-leaping and other scenes more clearly at home on Crete in the Aegean than in Egypt proper. 7 There are certainly a number of later Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasty Egyptian pharaohs who married foreign princesses, primarily to cement diplomatic bonds or a treaty with a foreign power, as we shall see below, but it is not necessary to invoke politically instigated marriages to explain the occurrence of 18 • • • Chapter One Minoan wall paintings in Egypt, since there is other independent evidence for contacts between the Eastern Mediterranean, Egypt, and, in this case, the Aegean.
In addition, it had an inscription incised into the blade. It initially proved easier to read the inscription than to identify the make of the sword, and so the translation was done first. A an-nu-tim a-na DIskur be-li-su u-se-li. ”50 The inscription refers to the so-called Assuwa Rebellion, which the Hittite king Tudhaliya I/II put down in approximately 1430 BC (he is referred to as “I/II” because we are not certain whether he was the first or the second king with that name). The revolt was already well known to scholars who study the Hittite Empire because of a number of other texts, all written in cuneiform on clay tablets, that had been found by German archaeologists excavating at Hattusa earlier in the century.